Multiple Intelligences and Learning

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Multiple Intelligences and Learning

Arguing that intelligence is uniform, it comes at a fixed level at birth and always stays at the same level.
old beliefs are being destroyed by Harvard University professor Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

Arguing that intelligence is uniform, it comes at a fixed level at birth and always stays at the same level.
old beliefs are being destroyed by Harvard University professor Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

According to Gardner, eight types of intelligence are present at different levels in every child from birth, and all intelligence types can be developed throughout life, starting from a young age.

With the theory of ‘multi-dimensional intelligence’, the classical education system in schools that only considers language and mathematical intelligence, the classical intelligence test based on it, and the old definition of intelligence become history.

Gardner names the eight types of intelligence as linguistic intelligence, visual intelligence, mathematical intelligence, movement (physical) intelligence, musical intelligence, interpersonal (social) intelligence, self-directed intelligence, and natural intelligence.


Nature Intelligence
To follow and understand nature, natural resources and natural events; It is the capacity to understand, distinguish, and classify plants and animals. (Biologist, archaeologist, geologist, meteorologist, florist, etc.)inguistic intelligence
It is the capacity and ability to use words effectively and wisely in spoken and written language. (Poet, writer, journalist and politicians)

Visual intelligence
It is the ability to visualize and see the objects around. (Painters, architects, photographers and decorators)

Math acumen
It is the ability to use numbers wisely and to establish cause and effect relationships. (Scientists, mathematicians and computer programmers)

Bodily intelligence
It is the capacity to use one’s body (dance, mimic, pantomime) to express oneself and the ability to use one’s hands to create something (sculpture or ceramic work). (athletes, actors, dancers, sculptors)

Musical intelligence
It is the capacity to show sensitivity to sounds and the ability to express oneself through music. (Musicians)

İnterpersonal intelligence
It is the capacity and ability to understand the moods, feelings, emotions, temperaments of others. (Advisor-advisor, teacher, policy leaders)

Self-directed intelligence
It is the capacity for self-direction, management, and self-awareness. (psychologists, psychotherapists, )


Linguistic intelligence
The vocabulary of such children is very broad. They enjoy telling stories, stories or jokes. They love to read, play word games and solve puzzles. Young children enjoy being read to or told stories. They enjoy finding and using rhyming words and saying rhymes quickly.

Visual intelligence
This type of children fantasize more than their peers. They enjoy visual activities such as jigsaw puzzles and mazes. Compared to his peers, his drawings and paintings are very beautiful. They love visual shows such as movies and slides.

Logical-Math intelligence
They wonder how everything works and they ask questions. Mathematics is their favorite subject. Playing games about math is very enjoyable for them. They enjoy playing thought-provoking games such as checkers and chess. They enjoy solving logic puzzles or math aptitude questions.
Movement-based (bodily) intelligence
These children are very active. They love to run, jump and wrestle. They imitate gestures and movements very well. They like to take things or similar things apart and put them back together. They are skilled in jobs that require manual skills such as wood carving, sewing, knitting.

Musical intelligence
Many of them have beautiful voices or sing beautifully. They are or are eager to play musical instruments. They like to listen to music and enjoy singing the songs they learned outside of school. They enjoy participating in choirs or similar activities.

İnterpersonal (social) intelligence
These children, who have leadership qualities, are the most popular among their friends. They enjoy participating in social activities. They like to take part in clubs, organizations, committees. He has more than one close friend. They care about others and worry about them.

Self-directed intelligence
They are independent and self-directed. They don’t talk much about interests or hobbies. They express their feelings completely and without exaggeration. They generally prefer to work and play alone.

Nature Intelligence
Those who have this type of intelligence research, study; They like to travel and observe. They take care of animals, play with the soil and grow plants. Environmental awareness has developed. They show an interest in seasonal and climatic events.

When we look at the types of intelligence whose definitions and characteristics are mentioned above, we see that they are all different from each other. Everyone has different perceptions and understandings, different approaches to events, and problem-solving abilities and styles. Everyone’s learning styles are different.
While children with advanced visual intelligence learn more with pictures and video films, children with physical intelligence learn better by touching, trying and applying. While children with mathematical intelligence learn easily with reason and effect relationships, children with musical intelligence are more successful in learning by listening and reading, children with linguistic intelligence enjoy learning by talking and communicating, while children with self-directed intelligence enjoy learning by working alone.


In order to apply the theory of multiple intelligences in the classroom, teachers need to use different teaching methods and different materials suitable for them. If we are to open this further, teaching the same thing with different methods and materials will enable children with different understanding capacities to learn more easily. The application of the theory of multiple intelligences by teachers in schools will reveal the superior intelligence (aspects) of children and enable them to develop and strengthen these aspects. In addition, other intelligence types will also develop in the lesson environments prepared according to the theory of multiple intelligences provided to them in the classroom.

Regardless of intelligence type, every child has strengths and weaknesses. If only one or two of these intelligence types are used in schools, children with other intelligence types will not be able to develop their talents, they will not be able to complete the learning task without pleasure and in a longer time, or they will not be able to learn at all.

With the ‘Multiple Intelligence’ method, children discover and strengthen their own superior and creative sides, and have the chance to develop other intelligence types. Thus, the self-confidence of children who grow up multi-faceted increases, they develop a more moderate attitude and behavior towards school and learning, and they become more successful.


As a result, while there are eight types of intelligence and different ways of learning, trying to fit children into a mold with a single type of learning that will appeal to one type of intelligence means hindering many geniuses who will grow up for society. Being a genius isn’t just about being talented in math and language, which is still practiced and valued in many schools. Children are smart and talented in music, with their bodies, social aspects, self-directed intelligence and visuals. They should be given the chance to demonstrate these abilities, develop and be successful.

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