Basic Principles of the Montessori Method

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Prepared Media

The child can develop his innate mental potential and abilities in an environment equipped with rich stimulants. In the Montessori approach; Children should be given opportunities to research, try, make mistakes and correct their own mistakes. By preparing a free environment for children, it should be ensured that they discover the unknown properties of materials, colors and shapes with their sense organs. In this free environment, children enjoy knowing, understanding and learning through experiences they have alone, with their classmates and adults.

In Montessori classrooms, the objects around the child should be suitable for his body structure and strength. This classroom is a real environment for children, with everything they need for the day. This reality is adjusted to the child’s dimensions. The materials are located without doors and on low shelves, so the child can independently reach and take all the materials. Since everything is in a certain place, the child knows where to find the things he needs.

Prepared Adult

In order to become a Montessori guide, a certificate is obtained by passing written and oral exams. A good mentor spends a lot of time practicing with materials in all areas throughout her education. It is trained to understand a child’s readiness for a lesson according to their age, ability and interest and to guide their individual development.

By observing, taking into account the areas of interest of the child, he prepares a separate lesson program for each child every day. The Montessori guide works as an environmental designer, resource person, role model, watchful observer of each child’s behavior and development, record keeper and practice guide. As children build themselves, the guide should only be helpful.


The guide often makes and records scientific observations of the children’s development in the classroom. These observations; It is done on subjects such as the child’s concentration, focus level, social development, mastery of the use and purpose of materials, and physical health. It evaluates these observations objectively and guides the child by preparing a special education plan.

Needs and Trends

The actual applications of the Montessori method are based on the human tendencies that Maria Montessori studied in detail; dispositions to act, to share with the group, to be independent, to make decisions, to establish order, to self-control, to have ideas by experience, to use imagination, to work hard, to repeat, to pay attention, to effort and to perfect what is revealed.

Mixed Age Group

Children are grouped according to the three-year age cycle and are trained together with the same teacher between the ages of 3-6. Mixed-age education enables younger children in the classroom to watch older children work, thus gaining insight into their future work and even transitioning to advanced studies earlier than their potential. It enables older children to help younger children and provide lessons, thus reinforcing what they have learned and gaining leadership qualities. Teaching a child a lesson can enable both parties to learn better.

Study Areas and Materials

Classroom environment, according to the main parts of the curriculum; It is organized as daily living skills department, sensory education department, mathematics department, grammar department and cosmic education department. Children have the freedom to choose the material they want to move around in the classroom and to work as long as they want.

Working with real materials. Each material has error checking to make kids independent. The materials are placed on the shelves from left to right, from easy to difficult, and from concrete to abstract. The guide presents the work to the children in a systematic way from easy to difficult. All materials are designed in accordance with the principle of isolation of difficulty and teach a single concept. The child who specializes in a material can use the material by developing it.

Free Choice

Children are free to choose materials. However, the freedom afforded to the child includes some limitations. First of all, it is limited to a certain number of materials in the classroom and that each material is prepared for different acquisitions. For example, the child who wants to produce words should work with the “animated alphabet” material. It is impossible for him to do what he did with the letters there, using a doll. Each material is designed for a specific purpose. For this reason, the child chooses between materials designed for the activity he wants to do. Also, the child’s choices are limited by having been shown how to use the material before. The activity that the child wants to study should have been shown to the child before by the guide. However, children can choose an activity freely and have to wait in case the material they need is being used by another friend. The child’s freedom is limited by the use of the material by someone else. In this case, the child who has to wait can turn to another activity or observe the work of his friend if he wants. The child’s freedom to observe his friend at work can initiate a serious learning process for him.

Training Method

Children learn more directly from the prepared environment and from other children than from mentors. The guide gives lessons to children individually or in small groups. Collective education is not done for all children at the same time. The guide has the ability to understand the child’s development, interests and direct his excitement to the subject, as well as having a good command of the subjects.

Spiral Education

Topics in all study areas are intertwined. Art, history, music, chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, astronomy and geology cannot be separated from each other, and each child continues his studies in his own unique and chosen order. It can be studied at any time and level during the day.

Character Education

Character education is more important than academic success. Children learn how to care for their environment, cleaning, cooking, speaking politely, being considerate, helpful, and sensitive.

Class Capacity

The average number of children in Montessori classrooms for different levels is as follows: 8 babies in the infant class, 15 children in the toddler class, 30 children in the early childhood class, 30 children in the primary school class, 30 children in the secondary school class. There is 1 teacher and 1 or 2 assistant teachers for this presence.

This class size is gradually reached within 1 to 3 years. This situation; It allows the formation of different personalities and learning styles in the classroom and the ability to do different tasks together and at the same time.

Class Schedule
What is required is two uninterrupted 3-hour working hours each day, which is not divided by compulsory group or branch lessons. Groups are formed in the natural course of the study. Everyone continues to work in a way that respects each other.

There is no evaluation as reward, punishment or grade. Evaluation is done with portfolio file. The guide observes and takes notes. The success criterion of the system is based on the happiness of children, their love of learning and working, their maturation, etc. it depends.

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